Fundamentals of visual art

Many of us have learned to draw in an unstructured manner, using the hit-and-trial method. We think we can draw and paint, without learning the fundamentals of visual art. However, the fundamentals of visual art & design are the basic building block to creating an aesthetically pleasing and technically correct artwork or design.

Just think – Is it possible to speak and write a language, without learning the fundamentals such as letters, grammar, vocabulary, etc.? Similarly, visual art has its own language, grammer and fundamentals, which are universal across different subjects and mediums.

With the help of the fundamentals of visual art, an artist can create technically correct and aesthetically pleasant artworks that can garner appreciation from the audience and drive sales of the artwork at a respectable price. 

Regardless of age, participants should possess a solid grasp of the fundamentals of visual art. Generally, it takes approximately 60 to 80 hours to achieve a basic level of proficiency, excluding subjects such as human anatomy and digital art topics. Some topics are interdependent upon each other and some are tightly coupled. No matter where you are taking the visual art course, all these topics should be covered throughly. 

At Shanky Studio, you may customize the Professional Visual Art Course as per your requirements, including your objectives, desired topics to be covered, available resources, and the time at your disposal.

An Overview of Fundamentals of Visual Art

Visual art methodology is a step-by-step process of creating an artwork, which integrates all the fundamentals of visual art, creative abilities, medium skills, tools, subject knowledge, etc.

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The principles of composition refer to the techniques and guidelines used to arrange the elements of art within a work of art or design,  creating a visually appealing and well-structured composition.
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The principle of design goes beyond visual arrangement and encompasses considerations such as functionality, user experience, and communication.
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Measurement refers to the process of quantifying and comparing the size, dimensions, and proportions of various elements within an artwork.
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The elements of art refer to the foundational components or building blocks that artists use to create visual art.
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  1. Artist
    1. Joy of creation
      1. Dopamine, the reward chemical such as completing a task
      2. Serotonin, the mood stabilizer such as meditation
      3. Oxytocin, the love hormone such as appreciation of an artwork
      4. Endorphins, the Pain Killer such as diverted attention
    2. To bring the consciousness to the next level :
      Art has historically been intertwined with spirituality, and artists can tap into this connection to explore themes of transcendence, enlightenment, and the nature of consciousness itself.
    3. Cognitive development: This includes
      creativity, imagination, problem-solving skills, fine motor skills, visual processing, memory enhancement, concentration, emotional regulation, critical thinking,  mindfulness, and relaxation.
    4. Expression: Art provides a powerful and diverse platform for individuals to express their emotions, thoughts, and ideas in unique ways beyond words, tapping into the depths of human emotions and experiences. 
    5. Aesthetic appreciation: Aesthetic appreciation and art are intertwined, as aesthetics refers to the appreciation and understanding of beauty, art, and sensory experiences. When individuals engage with art, they often experience aesthetic responses, which can involve feelings of pleasure, admiration, or emotional resonance. 
    6. Earn by selling: Earning by selling art can be a fulfilling endeavor for artists who are passionate about their work and have a desire to share it with others. However, making a living through art can be challenging and requires dedication, business acumen, and perseverance. 
  2. Audience
    1. Technically correct artwork
    2. Aesthetically pleasant artwork
    3. Affordable Artwork
  1. Participant
    1. Daily practice of home assignments: Home assignments in visual art serve as a vital extension of classroom learning. Home assignments provide students with opportunities to practice the skills and techniques learned in class. Regular practice is crucial for improving artistic abilities and reinforcing the concepts taught during art lessons. They provide students with a space for creativity, practice, and exploration, fostering individual growth, and building valuable skills that contribute to their development as artists. 
    2. Sufficient time to practice: Time to practice in learning visual art is essential for honing skills, fostering creativity, and building confidence. It is a continuous process that allows artists to refine their craft, explore their artistic vision, and grow as individuals. 
    3. Ability to sit for a longer duration: The ability to sit for extended periods while learning visual art is beneficial for focused learning, developing techniques, patience, completing complex artworks, achieving a flow state, having time for experimentation, enhancing artistic vision, building resilience, and continuous improvement.
    4. Keen interest: When individuals are genuinely interested in a subject, they are more motivated, engaged, and eager to invest time and effort into the learning process.  
    5. Patience: Patience refers to the ability to remain calm, tolerant, and persistent during the process of creating art. It involves taking the time needed to develop skills, work through challenges, and refine artistic techniques. Patience allows artists to embrace the gradual progress and evolution of their work, especially during moments of creative uncertainty or setbacks.
    6. Perseverance: Perseverance, on the other hand, is the quality of persisting with determination and tenacity to achieve artistic goals. It involves maintaining focus and commitment to the creative process, even in the face of difficulties, rejections, or self-doubt. Perseverance empowers artists to keep pushing forward, overcome obstacles, and stay dedicated to their artistic vision, leading to artistic growth and accomplishment.
    7. Methodology: Particiapnts are encouraged to follow their instructor's guidance diligently, avoid distractions, and resist the temptation to jump into advanced topics before mastering the fundamentals. Trusting the expertise of the instructor, embracing a step-by-step approach, being patient, and seeking guidance when needed are essential for developing a strong artistic foundation and achieving continuous improvement in visual art.
  2. Expert's Help
    1. Acuteness of observation
    2. Sharpen the analytical capability
    3. Impart the fundamentals of visual art and medium skills
    4. Minimal accidents while creating the artwork
    5. The quick accomplishment of the artwork
    6. Help you to discover your own signature style 
    7. Freedom to draw from
      1. Live
      2. Reference picture
      3. Memory
      4. Imagination
      5. Hybrid
    8. Develop creative abilities
  1. Innate: Some people do have innate abilities, and thus can naturally perform better than others in a particular subject. They have revered interest in the subject, and progressively improve their skills with uninterrupted practice. For more information, Google Neuroplasticity.
  2. Attained: Talent can also be learned and developed by those considered untalented. They can also achieve similar results with intense practice. The fact is that people are often more creative than they think. It’s said if you can write, you can draw as well. Everyone can learn to draw and paint, and they do it extremely well. Spending time with an artist can help you unlock your artistic abilities and the required skills. Drawing is a skill that can be taught, learned, practiced, and developed, we learn any other skill such as playing a musical instrument or learning a sport. Drawing can be learned by drawing.
  1. Methodology becomes critical, when we are dealing with the subject related to services related to visual art, especially where participant's existing skills and abilities are not homogeneous. At Shanky Studio, unlike conventional fine art institutes, visual art courses are tailor-made for an individual participant, and delivered on a one-to-one basis i.e. one teacher per student, using unique, proven, and hybrid methodology.
    1.  Classroom
      1. Commence: Define the topic, objectives, and tools.
      2. Concepts 
      3. Create Artwork
    2. Home Assignments
      1. Create again
      2. Change: Try variatrions.
      3. Consult: Ask for feedback.
      4. Correct: Improvise.
  1. Modular course
  2. Required depth of knowledge (See, Usage, Manufacture)
  3. Assured optimum delivery (Structure, Semi-structure, Unstructured)
  4. Accelerates the learning process
  5. Substantially reduces the learning curve
  6. Improves the retention
  7. Reduces the dependency on reference picture
  8. Participant can independently evaluate the created artwork
  9. Quickly enhances the creative abilities along with artistic skills
  10. Ensures over 99% success
  1. Courses are designed and delivered using 4MAT methodology framework, overlapped with SMARTER and Johari Windows methodologies.
    1.  4MAT
      The 4MAT learning cycle methodology is a framework for creating a dynamic style of teaching and learning, which is in sync with the human brain. Based upon recent research in the field of neuroscience and cognitive studies, the 4MAT explains how people acquire new information via observation, and then how they process the newly acquired information in their brains.
    2. Johari Windows: An interaction with an artist expands the participant’s “Open Area” per Johari Window, enhancing the participant’s knowledge, skills, and experience related to the art domain. These interactions are of the following 3 types
      1. Tell:
        An artist can disclose and demonstrate his techniques to the participant.
      2. Share:
        Participants and artists can work together to explore the participant’s hidden skills.
      3. Ask:
        Participants can take feedback about the artwork and thereby improve upon it.
    3. SMARTER: Each topic in a module is designed using SMARTER methodology. To maximize learning, topics are delivered, with the right combination of structured, semi-structured and unstructured training, with the required depth of knowledge for a particular topic.
      1. S - Specific
      2. M - Measurable
      3. A - Attainable
      4. R - Relevant
      5. T - Time-bound
      6. E - Evaluate
      7. R - Re-adjust
  1. Creative skills are very different from artistic skills & replication, and the former involves the following steps -
    1. Inception: Inspiration or trigger from an idea or from an event in life
    2. Incubation: Acute observation, research, synthesis, and imagination on the above trigger
    3. Illumination: Ideation and conceptualization
    4. Iteration: Evaluation and improvisation
    5. Implementation: Execute the creative idea using artistic skills and processes, using a particular medium and methodology
    6. Improve: Share with the audience, take feedback, learn, and improve
  1. Object
  2. Light VIBGYOR
  3. Eye
    1. Pupil
    2. Photodetectors
      1. Cones - Colors
        1. Colored Vision
        2. High Acuity
        3. Concentration in the Center of Retina
      2. Rods - Brightness
        1. Monochoromatic
        2. Night Vision
        3. Low Acuity
  4. Optical Nerve
  5. Visual Cortex Depth
    1. Physiological Monocular Depth
      1. Accommodation of Lens to Focus
      2. Movement Parallax
    2. Physiological Binocular Depth
      1. Binocular Parallax or Stereopsis i.e. Retina Disparity
      2. Inwards Convergence of Eyes
    3. Psychological
      1. Size
      2. Linear Perspective
      3. Texture & Gradient
      4. Overlapping
      5. Aerial Perspective
      6. Shades & Shadows
      7. Color Chromostereopsis
  6. Memory Association
  1. Visual Perceptual Observation: Vision received the various sensory input, which is collected in the brain and influenced by existing knowledge-base. Mind of a visual artist has a special ability to perceive an object differently using acute visual awareness, which includes dimensions of space, colour, shade and textures etc., unseen by normal people.
  2. Meta-Perception: Thereafter artistic mind manipulates the above Visual Perceptual Observation with an aesthetic sense, and generates a modified qualitative artistic response, which satisfy most of Principles of Design.
  3. Creative Transformation: Then the artistic mind, using Element of Art, improvises and refines the above Meta-Perception, which results in a unique creation with personalized style. This improvisation process evolves the artwork from abstract to detailed, using artistic methodology.
  1. Right: Feminine, unites, emotional, fluid, spontaneous, experimental, synthesizes, intuitive, subjective, whole, image, risk, random, doer, feeling, imaginative, believes, fantasy, ida nadi, controls right body.
  2. Left: Masculine, divides, rational, planned, structured, theoretical, analyses, logic, objective, details, language, safety, logical, thinker, facts, propositional, knowing, reality, pingla nadi, controls left body.

Visual art methodology is a step-by-step process of creating an artwork, which integrates all the fundamentals of visual art, creative abilities, medium skills, tools, subject knowledge, etc. While using this methodology, start from macro to micro, from external to internal, from simple to complex, using light to dark lines, with step-by-step improvisation. These steps may overlap and involve back-and-forth iterations with each other. This process includes the following steps -

    1. Thumbnail: Quick and rough conceptual sketch using 2D shapes and 3D shading:-
      1. Observation: By utilizing the fundamentals of art, observe the scene with acute awareness, skillfully weaving the story by eliminating superfluous details and incorporating aesthetically pleasing artistic elements.
      2. Composition: Compose the scene as per standard composition rules.
      3. Principle of Design: Apply principles of design.
      4. Perspective: Add a line of the horizon and other perspective lines, such as line of the horizon, and converging lines for plains.
      5. Shadows: Find and mark the dark and darkest areas. 
    2. Draw using 2D Shapes:
      1. Layers: Break down the object into layers, such as sky, clouds, trees,  buildings, human figures, etc.  
      2. Object: Identify and isolate an object (or a section) in a layer.
      3. Envelope: Define the envelope, with height and width, of the identified object, so that it can be sized and placed at the desired place on the drawing area.
      4. Break-down: Break down the object using horizontal lines, vertical lines, diagonal lines, circles, rhombus, triangles, and other simple known shapes. 
      5. Geometrical Structure: Refine and convert the envelope into a geometrical structure, which will act as the blueprint for the final drawing.
      6. Proportions: Ensure the standard proportions of the object, and relative proportions in relation to other objects are correct.  
      7. Drawing: Refine the geometry of the object and converts corners to curves, creating a final drawing of the silhouette. 
      8. Unify: Unify the smaller section into logical units.
      9. Improvise: Cross-check the drawing and make the necessary improvements.  
      10. Clean: Erase the structural guidelines and reduce the intensity of darkness of the drawing, using an eraser. Line drawing is just a container for shading to take place.
    3. Render/Shade using 3D Forms:
      1. Layers: Break down the object into layers.  
      2. Object: Identify the object in a layer.
      3. Wireframe: Visualize or create a wireframe and identify the plains and their angles for various forms such as circles, cuboids, cylinders, cones, and complex hybrid forms.
      4. Source of Light: Identify the source(s) of light.
      5. Shadow & Light Area: Identify the bright and dark areas. 
      6. Posterization: Posterize the reference pictures up to 5 to 10 levels, and analyze the value and color gradation. 
      7. Shading:
        1. Value Palette: Create a value palette based on the Posterization.
        2. Shade: Use the value palette and start the shading section by section. Depending on the medium, shading can be achieved by transitioning from dark to light or from light to dark.
      8. Color:
        1. Color Palette: Create a color palette based on the Posterization.
        2. Color: Use the color palette and start the coloring section by section. Depending on the medium, coloring can be achieved by transitioning from dark to light or from light to dark colors.
      9. Unify: Unify the smaller section into a logical unit.
      10. Texture: Add texture i.e. change the surface quality of the object.
      11. Enhance: Finishing touch by refining the fine details, edges, contrast, highlights, etc.
    4. Share:
      1. Preserve: Protect and preserve the artwork.
      2. Share & Take Feedback: Share and take critical feedback. 
      3. Improvise: Improve future artwork. 
  1. Similarity: Similar objects are perceived as one group.
  2. Proximity: Objects close to each other are perceived as one group.
  3. Continuity: When there is an intersection between the objects, an object is perceived as a single and uninterrupted object.
  4. Closure: Incomplete object is perceived as a complete object
  5. Common Fate: Objects moving or pointing in the same direction are perceived as one group.
  6. Good Form: Complex shapes are perceived as a group of simple shapes.
  7. Figure-Ground: Objects are perceived as either being in the foreground or the background.
  8. Perception and behaviour based associative memory
    1. Associative memory
    2. Expectations
    3. Beliefs
    4. Desire
    5. Culture
    6. Language
    7. Motivation
The principles of composition refer to the techniques and guidelines used to arrange the elements of art within a work of art or design,  creating a visually appealing and well-structured composition.
  1. Balance - Visual and Physical: Balance in composition is the distribution of visual weight, elements, or forces to create stability and equilibrium. Artists use the balance to establish order, visual harmony, and a pleasing engagement for viewers.
    1. Asymmetry
    2. Symmetry
    3. Radial
    4. Mosaic
  2. Color Scheme: Color schemes play a vital role in creating impactful artwork by skillfully selecting and arranging colors to evoke specific emotions and establish a distinct mood.
  3. Continuation: The continuation rule in visual art extends elements to create flow, unify the composition, guide the viewer's eye, establish rhythm and coherence, and enhance the artwork's dynamics and visual harmony.
  4. Contrast: Contrast in visual art involves using juxtaposition of elements like color, value, texture, shape, size, or direction to create visual interest and emphasis, highlighting specific elements and creating dynamic compositions that evoke tension, excitement, and depth.
  5. Diagonal Line: Diagonal lines in artworks create movement, energy, and tension, guiding the viewer's eye and adding visual interest and dynamic impact to the composition.
  6. Emphasis: Emphasis in an artwork uses specific elements to create a focal point, guiding the viewer's attention and creating visual hierarchy, enhancing the overall impact and storytelling of the artwork.
  7. Framing: Framing in artwork involves intentionally placing elements to enclose or surround the subject, creating a boundary that defines the spatial context, emphasizes the main focus, and adds depth and dimension to the composition.
  8. Golden Ratio 61.77% + 38.22%: The Golden Ratio in artwork is a mathematical proportion used by artists to create aesthetically pleasing compositions, involving dividing a line or shape into two unequal sections with a ratio of approximately 1.618. It guides the arrangement of elements, aiming for balance, symmetry, and visual harmony, and is observed in nature and historical art, enhancing the overall impact and harmony of the artwork.
  9. Golden Triangle: The Golden Triangle in artwork refers to a compositional technique derived from the Golden Ratio, where an equilateral triangle is created within the composition to guide the placement of key elements. It provides a visually pleasing and balanced arrangement, leading the viewer's eye through the artwork and creating a sense of harmony and dynamic flow.
  10. Layers: Layers in artwork add depth, dimension, and visual interest by incorporating multiple visual planes or levels. Artists overlap and arrange elements in separate layers to establish foreground, middle ground, and background, creating a dynamic and immersive experience. Techniques like overlapping shapes, transparency, and varied detail enhance the layering effect.  
  11. Leading Line: Leading lines in artwork guide the viewer's gaze along a visual path, using lines—whether straight, curved, or diagonal—to create movement, direction, and flow. They lead towards focal points or throughout the composition, created by actual or implied lines, and enhance visual engagement, attention, and overall composition by connecting different elements.
  12. Left to Right: The "left to right rule" in artwork suggests viewers' natural tendency to interpret visual information from left to right. Artists strategically arrange elements, creating compositions that guide the viewer's eye from the left to the right, enhancing narrative flow and visual storytelling.
  13. Minimalistic: Minimalism in artwork emphasizes simplicity, minimal elements, and reduction of visual elements to their essential forms, featuring clean lines, geometric shapes, limited colors, and negative space to create clarity, focus, and visual impact by eliminating excessive details and decoration.
  14. Plato's rule: Variety + Unity
  15. Point of View: Point of view in art composition refers to the viewer's position and perspective, which determines the spatial relationship and impact of elements in the artwork, influencing the composition, message, and emotions conveyed, including common types like eye-level, bird's-eye, worm's-eye, forced perspective, and the use of multiple perspectives for dynamic and layered visual experiences.
  16. Repeat & Pattern: Repeat and pattern in art involve the deliberate repetition of visual elements to establish rhythm, balance, and visual interest, creating a cohesive and harmonious composition while allowing artists to emphasize focal points, convey cultural symbolism, and enhance decorative aesthetics.
  17. Rule of Odd: The rule of odd in art suggests that odd numbers of elements tend to create a more visually appealing and balanced composition.
  18. Rule of Third: The rule of thirds is a composition technique in art and photography that involves dividing the image into a grid of nine equal parts and placing important elements along or near the intersections of these lines to create visually appealing and balanced compositions.
  19. Similarity: Similarity in compositions creates balance, harmony, and visual connections, allowing viewers to perceive the artwork as a unified whole with order and coherence.
  20. Small Objects in the Front: Placing small objects in the foreground of an artwork creates depth, perspective, and visual interest, serving to establish a focal point, add layers of information, and convey scale and proportion within the composition.
  21. Space in Front & Back of an Object: Leading space in visual art involves intentionally including empty space ahead of a moving object, guiding the viewer's eye along its implied path, creating a sense of motion and anticipation.
  22. Foreground and Background Lines: Foreground and background lines should not align with each other.

As compared to composition, the principle of Design go beyond visual arrangement and encompass considerations such as functionality, user experience, and communication.


  1. Balance: Balance in design involves visually distributing elements within an artwork to create equilibrium, harmony, and stability, achieved through symmetric or asymmetric arrangements that establish a sense of visual weight or tension for a balanced composition.
  2. Contrast: Contrast in design involves intentionally using contrasting elements like color, value, texture, size, or shape to create visual interest, emphasis, and distinction, adding diversity and impact to the artwork while creating a dynamic relationship between elements and a sense of visual tension or energy.
  3. Dominance/Emphasis: Dominance, or emphasis, in the principle of design involves creating a focal point that captures attention and establishes a sense of hierarchy within an artwork. Through techniques like contrast in size, color, shape, value, or texture, artists guide the viewer's gaze towards specific elements, emphasizing key aspects and creating visual impact. Dominance creates a clear visual hierarchy, allowing artists to emphasize important elements or themes, enhancing the overall composition and communicating effectively with the viewer.
  4. Harmony: Harmony in design involves the intentional arrangement of elements to create visual consistency, coherence, and unity through color, shape, form, texture, pattern, style, and theme, aiming for a visually balanced and unified composition that enhances the overall aesthetic experience and engages the viewer.
  5. Rhythm: Rhythm in design involves the repetition or alternation of visual elements to create movement, pattern, and flow. It can be achieved through regular, random, alternating, progressive, or flowing repetition, adding energy and visual interest to an artwork while guiding the viewer's eye and creating a dynamic and engaging composition
  6. Movement: Movement in the principle of design involves creating a visual sense of motion within an artwork through techniques such as implied movement, actual movement, visual cues, and dynamic composition. It adds a dynamic and engaging quality to the artwork, guiding the viewer's eye and evoking different emotions. Effective use of movement enhances the overall aesthetic experience and communicates the artist's intended message or concept.
  7. Pattern: Patterns in the principle of design involve the intentional repetition or arrangement of visual elements to create a cohesive and visually engaging composition. They add complexity, unity, balance, and depth to artworks, while also carrying cultural or symbolic meanings. Patterns are a versatile tool used in various art forms to enhance visual impact and create engaging compositions.
  8. Repetition: Repetition in the principle of design involves systematically repeating visual elements to create unity, rhythm, and coherence in an artwork. By repeating shapes, lines, colors, or textures, artists establish patterns, generate visual interest, and create a harmonious composition. Repetition adds consistency, structure, and visual impact, enhancing the overall aesthetic appeal and creating a sense of unity and balance in the artwork.
  9. Proportions: Proportion in the principle of design involves intentionally manipulating the relative size, scale, and ratio of elements in an artwork to create visual balance, harmony, and emphasis. By carefully considering and adjusting proportions, artists achieve a sense of aesthetic appeal and unity within their compositions, allowing them to convey specific messages or evoke particular moods. Proportions play a crucial role in creating visually pleasing and well-balanced artworks.
  10. Space: In the principle of design, space refers to the deliberate consideration and organization of empty or negative space in an artwork. It involves the strategic placement and relationship between the occupied and unoccupied areas within a composition. Space can contribute to the creation of balance, rhythm, and visual harmony. It also plays a role in determining the mood, focus, and depth of the artwork. Skillful use of space allows artists to enhance the visual impact, clarity, and overall aesthetic experience of their creations.
  11. Unity: Unity in the principle of design refers to the overall sense of cohesion, harmony, and oneness within an artwork. It involves the intentional arrangement and integration of various elements and components to create a unified whole. Unity is achieved through the consistent use of visual elements, such as color, shape, texture, or style, that work together harmoniously. It ensures that all parts of the artwork relate to and support each other, creating a sense of completeness and visual satisfaction. Unity in design helps to convey a clear message or concept, enhances the overall aesthetic appeal, and provides a cohesive and impactful visual experience for the viewer.
  12. Variety: Variety in design: intentional diversity and contrast of visual elements to create interest, excitement, and dynamic tension, enhancing impact, balance, and unity while preventing monotony and inviting viewer engagement.
  13. Originality: Originality in the principle of design emphasizes the uniqueness and creativity of an artwork, encouraging artists to develop fresh and innovative ideas. It involves pushing boundaries, challenging conventions, and expressing individuality to create distinct and captivating works. By striving for originality, artists contribute to the advancement of art and design, creating compositions that stand out and engage viewers.

The elements of art refer to the foundational components or building blocks that artists use to create visual art.

  1. 2D Sketch & Drawing
    1. Dot
    2. Line: Path created by a moving dot.
      1. Horizontal, vertical and diagonal
      2. Curve, Spiral
      3. Parallel, and converging 
      4. Dark, light, heavy, thin, and thick
      5. Crooked, and zigzag
    3. Shape: An enclosed line.
      1. Rhomboid
      2. Circle
      3. Triangle
      4. Hybrid
  2. 3D Forms
    1. Forms:
      1. Cone
      2. Cuboid
      3. Cylinder
      4. Sphere
      5. Hybrid
    2. Space
    3. Value
    4. Color
  3. Texture
    1. Categories
      1. Tactile Real
      2. Visual
    2. Type
      1. Rough, and smooth
      2. Soft, and hard
      3. Glossy
  1. Planes of the object
    1. Angle
    2. Surface quality
      1. Smooth
      2. Rough
  2. Sources of light
    1. Direction
    2. Distance
    3. Luminous
    4. Color Temperature
    5. Size
    6. Diffused or Focused
    7. Radiosity
    8. Sources of Light
      1. Incident
      2. Reflected
    9. Effect on object
      1. Light on the object
        1. Primary
        2. Secondary
      2.  Bright
        1. Highlight
        2. Light
        3. Mid
        4. Reflected
        5. Form Shadow
      3. Dark
        1. Shadow
          1. Umbra 
          2. Penumbra
          3. Antnumbra 
        2. Core Shadow
        3. Cast Shadow
        4. Crack / Occlusion / Cervix / Accent
  1. Scale
  2. Rotate
  3. Position & Perspective
  4. Sculpt / Cut / Scoop Out
  5. Combine
  6. Distort -
    1. Compress
    2. Stretch
    3. Twist
    4. Bend
    5. Contour
    6. Edges
  7. Complex
  1. Space: Space is an illusion of three-dimensionality within a two-dimensional artwork.
    1. No of layers: more layers result in greater depth.
    2. Color
      1. Red = Forward
      2. Green & Yellow = Middle
      3. Blue = Backward
    3. Contrast: Closer objects exhibit higher contrast.
    4. Details: Closer objects exhibit greater details.
    5. Overlap: Overlap of objects gives the illusion of depth.
    6. Placement: By shifting the placement of objects from the bottom, an illusion of depth is created.
    7. Size: Objects closer to us will appear bigger in size as compared to objects in the background.
    8. Perspective: Linear perspective creates the illusion of depth. Concepts are -
      1. Line of Horizon
      2. Vanishing Points
        1. VP1
        2. VP2
        3. VP3
        4. VP5 (Sphere)
        5. Auxiliary VP 
        6. False VP (Hills)
        7. Multiple VP 
      3. Converging lines
      4. Types
        1. One Point Perspective
          1. Eye Level View
          2. Bird View
          3. Ant View
          4. Railing / Fence i.e. equidistant objects
        2. Two Point Perspective
          1. Eye Level View
          2. Bird View
          3. Ant View
        3. Three Point Perspective
          1. Eye Level View
          2. Bird View
          3. Ant View
Measurement refers to the process of quantifying and comparing the size, dimensions, and proportions of various elements within an artwork.
  1. Drawing and Sketching
    1. Angles
    2. Position on x-axis and y-axis
    3. Envelop with height & width
    4. Sight-Size
    5. Relative Proportions
    6. Pre-defined Standard Proportions 
    7. Grid
    8. Perspective
    9. Positive Negative Space
    10. Composition
    11. Thumbnail
  2. Forms
    1. Wireframe
    2. Posterization
    3. Color Palette
    4. Value Palette
  1. Colors temperature
    1. Warm colors are leaning towards
      1. Yellow
      2. Red 
    2. Cool, leaning towards
      1. Green
      2. Blue
  2. Split primary colors
    1. CMY cool basic primaries
      1. Cyan (Pathelo, Diliuted Persian, Cerulean)
      2. Magenta (Quin / Quinacridone Magenta, Carmine, Magenta, Crimson Lake, Quin Rose)
      3. Yellow  (Lemon Yellow)
    2. RYB warm secondary primaries
      1. Red (Pyrrol, Cadmium, Scarlet Lake, Vermilion)
      2. Yellow (Hansa, Cadmium, Indan, Gamboge Hue)
      3. Blue (Ultramarine Blue)
  3. Secondary colors
    1. CYM
      1. Y + M = Desatuarated Pale Orange
      2. M + C = Bright Violet
      3. C + Y = Bright Green
    2. RYB
      1. Y + R = Bright Orange 
      2. R + B = Desaturated Violet
      3. B + Y = Desaturated Green
  4. Color wheel (12 sections)
    1. Primary
      1. Red 
      2. Yellow 
      3. Blue
    2. Secondary
      1. Yellow + Blue = Green
      2. Red + Yellow = Orange
      3. Red + Blue = Violet
    3. Tertiary
      1. Yellow Orange
      2. Red Orange
      3. Red Violet
      4. Blue Violet
      5. Blue Green
      6. Yellow Green
  5. Signature Colors 
    1. Turquoise
    2. Magenta
    3. Purple
  6.  Schemes
    1. Complementary (opposite colors in the color wheel)
      1. Desaturated on either side
      2. Neutral color in the middle,  in equal quantity
    2. Analogues
      1. Used to brighten up the dark-to-light effect
      2. The transition from dark to light 
    3. Triadic
    4. Monochromatic: Dark-to-light effect transition 
    5. Split
    6. Tetradic
  7. Variation
    1. Hue = Purity of color
    2. Tints / White = Hue is diluted to increase the transparency
    3. Shade / Black or desaturation = Hue is mixed with complimentary colors such as Orange/Blue, Yellow/Violet, and Red/Green
    4. Tone / Gray = Shade, Hue, and Tint in sequence
  1. Issues
    1. Dust
    2. humidity
    3. UV rays
    4. Temprature
    5. Pest
    6. Pollution
    7. Cleaning
    8. Acid reaction
    9. Transportation
    10. Human touch
  2. Solution
    1. Fixative
    2. Lamination
    3. Glass
    4. Frame
    5. Avoid issues
  1. Dry
    1. Graphite
    2. Charcoal
    3. Soft Pastels
    4. Oil Pastels
    5. Colored Pencils
  2. Wet
    1. Watercolor
    2. Oil
    3. Acrylic
    4. Glass
    5. Ink
  3. Opaque
    1. Acrylic
    2. Oil
    3. Charcoal
    4. Graphite
    5. Soft Pastels
    6. Oil Pastels
  4. Transparent
    1. Watercolor
    2. Glass
    3. Ink
  5. Craft work
    1. Sculpturing
    2. Clay
  6. Digital (Advance)
    1. Photoshop for image editor
    2. CorelDraw / Illustrator for vector graphic editor
    3. Primer for a video editor
    4. Zbrush for sculpturing (advanced)
    5. 3Ds Max for modelling & animation (Advance)
    6. After Effect for VFX (Advance)
  7. Mixed Media
  1. Basic
    1. 2B lead 2mm clutch pencil
    2. Blenders
    3. Normal A4 paper
    4. Putty eraser
    5. 2B lead
    6. Vinyl eraser
    7. Zero number sandpaper
    8. A3 Size Hard Board
  2. Advance
    1. Tombow zero eraser
    2. Pencils
      1. HB Wood Pencil
      2. 2B Wood Pencil
      3. 4B Wood Pencil
      4. Staedtler 100 EE
    3. Sharpener
    4. Lead Pointer
    5. Filbert Brush
    6. Posca White Marker, Fine Tip
    7. Electric Eraser
    8. Canson Sketching Paper
  1. Lead
    1. Sharp
    2. Lead Tip
    3. Lead Side
  2. Holding
    1. Traditional
    2. Overhand Heavy Grip
    3. Drumstick or Lollipop
    4. Paint Brush
    5. Inverted
  3. Pivot
    1. Type
      1. Finger Joints
      2. Wrist / Tripod
      3. Elbow
      4. Shoulder
      5. Waist
      6. Knees
      7. Feet
    2. Benefits
      1. Finger to Elbow
        1. Precise
        2. Tiny
        3. Clean
        4. Control
      2. Shoulder
        1. Loose
        2. Quick
        3. Covers Big Area
        4. Less Restrictions (Ball & Socket)
      3. Waist to Feet for Bigger Areas
  4. Value
    1. Black (100 EE)
    2. Very Dark (100 EE + 4B)
    3. Dark (4B)
    4. Mid (2B)
    5. Light (HB)
    6. Very Light (B)
    7. White
  5. Techniques
    1. Dark
      1. Pressure
      2. Layering
      3. Paper texture
      4. Lead Softness
    2. Lifting
      1. Eraser
      2. Blade
      3. Shield / Masking
      4. Lead Hardness
    3. Texture 
      1. Hatching
      2. Cross-hatching
      3. Random lines
      4. Zigzag
      5. Smudge
      6. Stippling
      7. Scumbling (small random sharp shapes to create spiky texture)
      8. Scribbling (small random circular movement)
  1. Colors & Palette
    1. Yellow: Lemon Yellow PY31 (Cool), Gamboge Hue PY35 / NY24 (Warm), Permanent Orange PO62 (Warm)
    2. Red: Crimson Lake PR23 (Cool), Vermillion PR106 (Warm)
    3. Blue: Cobalt Blue PB28 (Warm), French Ultramarine Blue PB29 (Warm), Prussian Blue PB27 (Cool), Cerulean Blue PB35 (Cool)
    4. Green: Light Green PG37 (Cool), SAP Green PG17 (Warm)
    5. Natural: Yellow Ochre PY43 Opaque / PY42 Transparent (Warm), Burnt Sienna PR102, Raw Umber PBR7, Paynes Grey
  2. Tubes for Indoor & Cake for outdoor
  3. Gum Arabic as a retarder
  4. White Gouache or Acrylic colors for highlights
  5. Brushes up to A3 size paper
    1. Round (2, 4, 6, 8, 12)
    2. Flat (2, 4, 6, 8, 12)
    3. Quill mop (2, 4, 6, 8, 12)
    4. Flat mop / hake (2 inch, 4 inch)
    5. Rigger (0, 1, 2, 3)
    6. Spotter (0, 1, 2)
    7. Micron Pens (1, 4, 8)
    8. HB Pencil and Eraser
    9. Sea Sponge
  6. Water Cups
  7. Rags 
  8. Masking fluid
  9. Paper
    1. Manufacturing = Cold Press and Hot Press
    2. Texture = Smooth (for details), Rough, and Matt textured
    3. Color = White, Duck egg, Egg Shell and Cream
    4. Suitable Weight = 300 GSM / 140 Lbs up to 640 GSM / 300 Lbs
    5. A3, A4, and A5 Size
    6. A3 Board
    7. Tape to stretch paper
    8. Brown for wet paper
    9. Masking tape for dry paper
  10. Pigment purity
    1. Student Grade
    2. Artist Grade
    3. Permanence = UK standard AA, A, B and C; and USA standard ASTM I, ASTM II and ASTM III
    4. Professional brands
      1. Holbein
      2. Schmincke Horadam
      3. Winsor & Newton
      4. M. Graham
      5. Sennelier Aquarelle
      6. Royal Talens Rembrandt
  1. Color Wheel (Color & Paper Test)
    1. X-axis color = Tea 10% pigment, Coffee 30%, Milk 50%, Cream 70%, and Butter 100%
    2. Y-axis paper = Wet, Moist, Damp, and Dry
  2. Opacity
    1. Transparent
    2. Opaque such as Cadmium colors
  3. Shadows for Form and Cast
    1. Prussian Blue + Vermilion Red = Blue Grey
    2. Prussian Blue + Burnt Sienna = Grey Brown
    3. Cobalt Blue + Crimson Red = Red Violet
    4. Gamboge Yellow + Rose + Ultramarine Blue = Taupe
    5. Red + Yellow + Blue = Black
    6. Mix complimentary color = Grey
    7. Burnt Sienna + Ultramarine Blue = Payne's Grey
    8. Don't add more than 3 colors
  4. Texture
    1. Flour
    2. Salt
    3. Sponging
    4. Granulation
      1. Little = French ultramarine with alizarin crimson and French ultramarine with raw sienna
      2. Maximum = Cerulean blue with alizarin crimson and cerulean blue with raw sienna
      3. Zero = Cobalt blue with alizarin crimson and Cobalt blue with raw sienna
    5. Spattering
    6. Stippling
    7. Plastic film
    8. Water soluble color and graphite pencils
    9. Alcohol
  5. Techniques
    1. Sgraffito
    2. Scraping
    3. Scratching
    4. Water
    5. Wash
    6. Flat
    7. Graded
    8. Variegated
    9. Wet on wet
    10. Wet on wet color flow by tilting the board at 20 to 45 degrees
    11. Wet on dry
    12. Overlay / Optical / Glazing
    13. Physical mix
    14. Dry brush
    15. Line and wash
  6. Color Lifting
    1. Staining
    2. Marking tape
    3. Masking fluid
    4. Wax
    5. Absorbent paper
  1. Palette
    1. Colors
      1. Yellow Ochre
      2. Cadmium Lemon
      3. Alizarin Crimson
      4. Cadmium Red
      5. Cerulean Blue
      6. Ultramarine Blue
      7. Burnt Sienna
      8. White
    2. Extra
      1. Viridian Green
      2. SAP Green
      3. Black - Avoid
  2. Physical Palette
    1. Small Acrylic Transparent Palette
    2. Butter Paper Palette
    3. Glass Palette with light Grey base
    4. Small Palette Knife for mixing
    5. Razor Scrape
  3. Brushes
    1. Round (2, 4, 6, 8, 12)
    2. Flat Round (2, 4, 6, 8, 12)
    3. Filbert Round (2, 4, 6, 8, 12)
    4. Flat Mop 1, 2 inches wide
    5. Fan Brush
    6. Liner and Rigger Brush
    7. Brush holder
    8. Thin Scale
    9. Small Palette Knifes
  4. Canvas
    1. Framed or Hardboard Mounted Canvas
    2. Oil Paper
    3. Gesso Transparent or White Acrylic Paint 
    4. Sandpaper 20 - 400 grit
  5. Medium
    1. Linseed Oil
    2. Gamsol (Thin and Brush Cleaner)
    3. Stand Oil (Thick)
    4. Liquin (Fast Dry)
    5. Cold Wax (Impasto)
  6. Easel
  7. Protector
    1. Apron
    2. Gloves
    3. Exhaust Fan
    4. Mask
  8. Varnish
    1. Layer with Oil
    2. Retouch Varnish
    3. Final Picture Varnish
    4. Picture Clean
  1. Minimalistic Color Wheel for Oil Paints
    1. French Ultramarine Blue (warm) and Persian Blue (cool)
    2. Purple (Derived)
    3. Pyrrole Rubine Red (warm) and Quin Red (cool)
    4. Burnt Umber
    5.  Orange (Derived)
    6. Cadmium Yellow (warm) and Lemon Yellow (cool)
    7. Green (Derived)
    8. Strip of White on the side
    9. Other colors –
      1. Intense and signature colors
        1. Purple
        2. Magenta
        3. Turquoise Colbal Teel
        4. Black
        5. Subject
        6. Portrait
        7. Landscape
  2. Color Attributes
    1. Hue – It represents the pure, dominant color without any white, black, or gray added to it. 
    2. Colors of the same hue and saturation, but of different lightness
      1. Tint – Color + White
        1. Shade – Color + Black
        2. Colors of the same hue and lightness, but of different saturation
      2. Tone – Color + Grey (Black + White)
  3. Color Mixing
    1. Value (Dark or Bright & Light)
      1. Dark - Blue and Burnt Umber, avoid Red
      2. Light - Yellow and White
    2. Hue toward the color’s purity
      1. Grey leans towards the Blue
      2. Brown leans towards the Red or Orange
    3. To reduce the intensity/saturation, add the opposite color from the color wheel
    4. White as lightener is an irreversible process
    5. Avoid Black, instead use following
      1. Alizarin Red + Viridian Green
      2. Burnt Umber + Ultramarine Blue
        1. Warm Black will have more Burnt Umber
        2. Cool Black will have more Ultramarine Blue
  4. Medium Rules
    1. Lin Seed oil becomes hard/dry after the Polymerization / Oxidation process, which takes months to dry.
    2. Solvents dry quickly within 24 hours
    3. Drying time, consistency, and luster depends upon the medium
    4. Solvents to make the color lean, matt finish, and dry quickly
    5. Lin seed oil to make the color fat, lustrous, and dry slowly
    6. Fat over lean layering, and light over dark layering
    7. Use solvent to clean the brush and colors
    8. Canvas preparation
    9. Double-primed stretched or board-mounted canvas
    10. Transparent Gesso layer, drying time 24 hours
    11. Use zero-number sandpaper to smoothen out the gesso layer
  5. Drawing
    1. Directly draw (with the posterization) on the Canvas with a HB or H pencil
    2. Under Paint - Burnt Sienna, Burnt Umber & a rag to pick the color for lighter shade
    3. Transfer drawing, from paper to canvas using charcoal pencil
    4. Protect drawing with a transparent gesso layer
  6. Process
    1. Fat over lean steps –
      1. Drawing process
      2. Base color
      3. Add volume
      4. Add details
    2. Alla Prima - At One Go, wet-on-wet
    3. Varnish
  7. Brush techniques
    1. Blending - Blending involves using soft brush strokes to smoothly blend colors together, creating a seamless transition between different areas of the painting.
    2. Create range of colors/value as per the posterization scheme of the subject
    3. Use minimal brush strokes for mixing color on the canvas
    4. Use the dry brush to mix the colors
    5. Make layers of values from the color palette
    6. Use different sized of brushes to fit the areas
    7. Control the flow of the brush strokes
    8. Glazing - Glazing is a technique of applying thin, transparent layers of paint over a dried base layer. This method allows you to build up rich colors and depth by allowing the underlying layers to show through.
    9. Scumbling - Scumbling is a dry-brush technique where you apply a thin, opaque layer of paint over an existing layer. The underlying color still shows through the scumbled layer, creating a visually interesting effect. It's often used to add texture or to create a sense of atmosphere in the painting.
    10. Overlapping or cross-hatching - Similar to the technique used in drawing, cross-hatching in oil painting involves using parallel lines or brush strokes in different directions to build up texture and value. It can add a sense of movement and dynamism to your artwork.
    11. Stippling or tapping - Stippling involves applying paint in small dots or dabs, creating a stippled texture. It's often used for creating a sense of depth, shading, or texture, especially in backgrounds or areas with foliage.
    12. Impasto - This technique involves applying thick, textured paint directly onto the canvas with a palette knife or a brush. It creates a three-dimensional effect, as the paint stands out from the surface. Impasto brush strokes add depth and create a tactile quality to the painting.
    13. Scraping or Sgraffito - Sgraffito is a unique technique where you scratch through a top layer of wet paint to reveal the underlying layers. This can create interesting textural effects and allow you to bring out highlights or details.-
    14. Wet-on-wet: This technique involves applying wet paint on top of still-wet paint, allowing the colors to blend and mix directly on the canvas. It's useful for creating soft and seamless transitions between colors.
    15. Lines with paper and scale – Sharp horizontal, vertical or diagonal lines, using scale or a thick paper or palette.
    16. Palette Knife
      1. Strokes
        1. Homegenious
        2. Heterogeneous
        3. Random
        4. Circular
      2. Texture
        1. Impasto
        2. Scumble (Broken)
      3. Blending
        1. Squish (Sun)
        2. Blend
      4. Line
        1. Scrap
        2. Edge of the palette or paper or scale
      5. Sponge and Napkins
  1. Skull: Cranium and mandible (jaw)
  2. Face muscles: Temple (frontal belly, corugator supercilii, temporal fascia, superior auricular), nose (procerus, corruganastor suppercilii, nsalis, levator labii superioris), cheek (zygomaticus minor, zygomaticus major, buccinator, masseteric fascia, parotid fascia, risorius), mouth (orbicularis oris, depressor anguli oris, mentalis), neck (trapezius, posterior auricular, sternocleidomatoid, omohyoid, sternohyoid, stylohyoid).
  3. Eyes: Construction, socket, sclera, capillaries, iris, pupil, upper lid, lower lid, tear ducts, epicanthal fold, reflection, lashes, orbicularis oculi, brow, oval iris as it moves away from centre.
  4. Nose: Glabella (triangle), nasal bone, nasal spine, maxilla, lateral cartilage, alar fat (nostril), septum (wall between nostril), greater alar cartilage (front lob).
  5. Lips: Philtrum ridges, cupid’s bow, upper/lower vermillion border, oral commissures (pinch), lower lip groove, lobes of the lower lip, mentolabial furrow if lower lip, 5 lobs of lips.
  6. Ear: Helix, scapha, triangular fossa, superior crus, inferiror crus, anti helix, anti tragus, lobule, intertragic notch, tragus, concha cavum, concha cymba, helicis crus, y?.
  7. Neck: Omohyoid, clavicle bone / adam’s apple, hyoid bone, levator scapulae, sternohyoid, sternocleidomastoid, trapezius, external jugular vein, sternum.
  8. Hair: Form, texture, layering.
  9. Angle: Front, side, top, and bottom
  10. Type: Male, Female, Kid
  11. Age: Young, and Old
  12. Expression: Neutral, smiling, happy, sad, worried, sleepy, surprised, and angry.
  13. Reference photo study: Digital enhancement, conversion into black and white, posterization and draw grid.
  1. Terminology: Anterior / front, posterior / back, medial/middle, lateral/opposite, superior / top. inferior / bottom, proximal / closer to the centre, distal / away from the centre, deep/covered, superficial/visible, subcutaneous / just below the surface.
  2. Skeleton System: Skeleton: bone on the surface as landmark, skull, clavicles, spine (atlas, 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumber, 2 tail bone), pelvic, anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS), Scapula, Posterior Superior Iliac Spine (PSIS), legs, femur, tibia, fibula, patella, arms, humerus/triangle at the elbow, hands.
  3. Human figure proportions.
    1. Human figure proportions: Robert Beverly Hale (11.5 cranial), foreshortening agnostic, dynamics of body, width from the front, height from the side.
    2. Secondary human figure proportions: Richer (7.5 heads), Loomis (8 heads).
    3. Croquis: 9 heads proportions, face, neck, shoulder, chest, waist, pelvic, thigh, calf, ankle, feet, upper arms, forearm, hands, female, male.
    4. Croquis dynamics: Front, side, three-quarter and back pose.
    5. Human figure structure: Mannequinization, box, cylinder, oval.
    6. Human figure types: Male, female and kid.
  4. Torso
    1. Torso: Rib cage, pelvic, tilt, lean, twist, foreshortening, front, back.
    2. Torso front: Pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, serratus anterior, rectus abdomens.
    3. Torso back: Sternocleidomastoid, trapezius, deltoid, infraspinatus, teres minor teres major, rhomboideus major, latissimus dorsi, erector spinae, obliquus externus, scapula.
  5. Legs & Arms
    1. Arms: Biceps brachii, triceps brachii, extensor capri radialis longus, anconeus.
    2. Hands: Construction, muscles/ligaments, bones and nerves.
    3. Legs: Construction, muscles/ligaments, bones and nerves.
    4. Feet Construction, muscles/ligaments, bones and nerves.
  6. Dynamics
    1. Synovial joints: Shape, movement, hinge for flexion and extension(elbow), pivot (elbow), ball & socket (hip/shoulder), ellipsoid (wrist), saddle (thumb), plain (hand/foot).
    2. Gesture: Rhythm (flow/action/motion/movement), contours, longest axis, CSI lines, line of action, tense vs relaxes, directional flow.
    3. Balance: Gravity, point of contact on the ground (single point, two points/line, three points/triangle, four points/quadrangle), weight on point of contacts, the centre of support, weight on point and centre of support, the centre of gravity, distribution of weight and wideness of base, balance is equal mass/weight on either side, weight distribution on legs and external support.
    4. Dynamics: Controlled fall or controlled loss of balance, muscle strength against gravity, dynamics of the rib cage, pelvic and spine, contrapposto (stretch/squash, high/low, supporting/extended leg), activities, muscle tension.
  1. Types of folds
    1. Pipe
    2. Drop
    3. Diaper
    4. Spiral
    5. Half lock
    6. Zigzag 
    7. Inert - includes all the above six
  2. Properties of cloth
    1. Stiffness and fluidity
    2. Absorption and reflectivity of light
    3. Surface weave, texture, and pattern
    4. Transparency and opacity
    5. Elasticity and stretch
    6. Weight and lightness
    7. Folds - Fold, stretch, pinch, pull, compress, drape, flow, wrinkle, crease, twist, sag, hang, tangle, billow, ripple, gather, pleat, ruffle, crumple, tuck, knot, unravel, etc.
  3. Body movement
    1. Extend
    2. Bend
    3. Twist
    4. Rotate
    5. Movement
  4. Cloth and dress type
    1. Thin & Tight = Spandex
    2. Tight & Thick = Leather
    3. Thick & Loose = Wool
    4. Loose & Thin = Silk
  5. Folds rules
    1. Kinetic and potential energy
    2. Point of tension(s)
    3. Point of support(s)
    4. The flow of the fold follows the force
    5. Conform to the shape of the body or objects underneath
    6. A tight dress will have horizontal folds 
    7. A loose dress will have verticle folds 
    8. The light wet cloth becomes transparent and clings to the body
    9. A heavy wet cloth is pulled towards the gravity
    10. The lighter cloth will flow in the wind
    11. On movement, the loose cloth tends to wind
    12. The elbow and knee make the cloth pinch and stretch  
    13. Gravity pulls the cloth down
    14. The stiffness of the cloth nullifies the gravity 
    15. Inert cloth on the floor will have horizontal folds
    16. Folds overlap with each other 
    17. Usually, cloth breaks down into a series of triangles (vertically) and cylinders (horizontally)
    18. Folds have hard and soft edges 
    19. Shapes of folds like Y, X, Z or N, S, U & V, P, and O 
    20. Other similar complex forms are hills, wrinkles, and hair
  1. Material
    1. Ink
    2. Brush
    3. Pens
    4. Gold Foil
    5. White Glue
    6. Paper
  2. Method
    1. Holding of Pen & Brush
      1. Grip
      2. Angle
  3. Fundamentals
    1. Desender
    2. Ascender
    3. Arch
    4. Terminal
    5. Hook
    6. Link
    7. Spine
    8. Cross Stroke
    9. Apex
    10. Sheared Terminal
    11. Tail
    12. Serif
    13. Cross Bar
    14. Stem
    15. Diamond
    16. Hackle
    17. Flourish
    18. Majuscule
    19. Minuscule
  4. Template
    1. Ascend Line
    2. Capital Line
    3. X-Height
    4. Box Line
    5. Descend Line
  5. Letter Grouping
    1. Arched - hlmnruy
    2. Round - oabcdepg
    3. Diagonal - kvwxz
    4. Misc - fgistj
  6. Eight Basic Strokes
    1. Upstroke
    2. Downstroke
    3. Overturn
    4. Underturn
    5. Compound Curve
    6. Oval
    7. Ascending Loop
    8. Descending Loop
  1. Live / Life
  2. Still Life
  3. Portrait
  4. Landscape
  5. Floral
  6. Abstract
  7. Traditional
  8. Mandala
  9. Mural
  10. Clay Craft Work
  11. Sculpture
  12. Calligraphy
  1. Form Modelling
  2. Drawing from Still Life
    1. Cartoon Shading
    2. Floral
    3. Pear
    4. Banana
    5. Grapes
    6. Jug
    7. Cup
    8. Flower Vase
    9. Jar
    10. Glass
    11. Tap
  3. Scape
    1. Landscape 1, 2, and 3 Point Perspective
      1. Sky
      2. Clouds
      3. Birds
      4. Hills
      5. Rocks
      6. Shrubs
      7. Trees
      8. Hut
      9. Path
      10. Fence
      11. Dog
      12. Cow
      13. Human figs
    2. Cityscape 1, 2, and 3 Point Perspective
      1. Buildings
      2. Car
      3. Three Wheeler
    3. Urban Scape
      1. Cafe
      2. Market
      3. Table
      4. Chair
      5. Interior
  4. Portrait
    1. Front Pose
    2. Side Pose
    3. 3/4 Pose
    4. Front Pose using Grid
  5. Human Figs
    1. Front Pose
      1. Drapery
      2. Skeleton
      3. Muscles
      4. Movement
    2. Side Pose 
    3. 3/4 Pose 
    4. Back Pose
    5. Dynamic Figs 
      1. Croquis dynamics: Front, side, three-quarter and back pose.
      2. Balance: Gravity, point of contact on the ground (single point, two points/line, three points/triangle, four points/quadrangle), weight on point of contacts, the centre of support, weight on point and centre of support, the centre of gravity, distribution of weight and wideness of base, balance is equal mass/weight on either side, weight distribution on legs and external support.
      3. Dynamics: Controlled fall or controlled loss of balance, muscle strength against gravity, dynamics of the rib cage, pelvic and spine, contrapposto (stretch/squash, high/low, supporting/extended leg), activities, muscle tension.
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